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ماذا تعرف عن رجال الاطفاء بس ابية بالغة الانجليزية يعني الكلام؟؟؟
ماذا تعرف عن رجال الاطفاء بس ابية بالغة الانجليزية يعني الكلام؟؟؟
اللغات 18‏/10‏/2009 تم النشر بواسطة للفن عنوان.
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Firefighters, or firemen, are rescuers extensively trained primarily to put out hazardous fires that threaten civilian populations and property, to rescue people from car accidents, collapsed and burning buildings and other such situations. The increasing complexity of modern industrialized life with an increase in the scale of hazards has stimulated both advances in firefighting technology and a broadening of the firefighter-rescuer's remit. They sometimes provide emergency medical services. The fire service, or fire and rescue service also known in some countries as the fire brigade or fire department, are some of the emergency services.

Firefighting and firefighters have become ubiquitous around the world, wildland areas to urban areas, and on board ships. Firefighters are held in high regard around the world; in Australia, Canada, Europe, Japan, and the United States. This causes firefighting to be one of the five trusted public service professions.

In some countries, including Australia, Canada, Finland, Germany, Japan, New Zealand, Sweden and the United States, there are often paid, or professional career firefighters working. Additionally, there are volunteer firefighters (who are theoretically unpaid) and retained firefighters (sometimes called on call firefighters, who are paid for the specific time they are on duty, i.e. permanent part-time career firefighters) on call 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. In such countries as the United Kingdom and Ireland, the use of additional retained firefighters is standard. In Portugal, the use of volunteer firefighters is standard, along with career firefighters.

In Australia there are volunteer brigades which are mostly unpaid rural services (although traditionally they are paid by their employers if called out during working hours).

In Germany, volunteer fire departments, called the "Freiwillige Feuerwehr", are established in every town: even the biggest German city, Berlin, with more than 3.6 million inhabitants, has volunteer firefighters besides a career fire service. In fact, only 100 German cities (most of them are towns with more than 100,000 inhabitants) have a career fire service, called the "Berufsfeuerwehr," but in every one of these cities a volunteer fire service exists, too. In cities with a career fire service, volunteer fire brigades support the career fire service at big fires, accidents and disasters. Many of the so-called volunteer departments (usually in towns with 35,000 to 150,000 inhabitants), except in very small towns and villages, are a mixed service of a core of career firemen who are supported by true volunteer firefighters should the need arise. However, the official title of those departments is nevertheless "volunteer fire service".
Polish fire truck

The structure in Austria is similar to Germany. There are just six career fire services in Vienna, Graz, Innsbruck, Klagenfurt, Salzburg and Linz. As of 2007, some 4,527 volunteer fire departments, the back-bone of the Austrian fire service, could rely on about 320,000 men and women voluntary firefighters as active members.[1] Fire departments exist in even the smallest villages, where they contribute to community life, usually by organizing fairs and other fund-raising activities. In Venezuela, there are, beside the types mentioned above, University Firefighters. They attend any emergency inside the campus and the zones around; however, their most important job is to develop new technologies in this area, thanks to the high level of education of its members: in the Simón Bolívar University Volunteer Fire Department, around 80% of its members have a university degree or are in the process of obtaining one.
Vehicles of the Tokyo Fire Department.

In India municipalities are bound by law to have a fire brigade and participate in a regional fire service. Each city has its own fire brigade. The main functions of firefighting services in India are provision of fire protection and of services during emergencies such as building collapses, drowning cases, gas leakage, oil spillage, road and rail accidents, bird and animal rescues, fallen trees, appropriate action during natural calamities, and so on. Industrial corporations also have their own firefighting service. Each airport and seaport has its own firefighting units.

In Japan, fire services are organized on a city/town/village basis. There are 894 fire headquarters and 3,598 volunteer fire corps. These have a total of 155,000 active career firefighters and 21,000 vehicles with 4,800 fire houses;[citation needed] 920,000 volunteer firefighters share an additional 51,000 trucks.

In Romania, the Romanian General Inspectorate for Emergency Situations is responsible for fire fighting and civil defense.
[edit] Goals of firefighting

The goals of firefighting are (in order) saving lives, saving property, and protecting the environment. As such, the skills required for safe operations are regularly practiced during training evolutions throughout a firefighters career. In the United States, the preeminent fire training and standards organization is the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). Often initial firefighting skills are taught during a local, regional, or state approved fire academy. Depending on the requirements of a department, additional skills and certifications such as technical rescue and Para-medicine may also be taught at this time.
Firefighters of the New South Wales Fire Brigades

Firefighters work closely with other emergency response agencies, most particularly local and state police departments. As every fire scene is technically a crime scene until deemed otherwise by a qualified investigator, there is often overlap between the responsibilities of responding firefighters and police officers such as evidence and scene protection, initial observations of first respondents, and chain of evidence issues.[citation needed] The increasing role of firefighters in providing emergency medical services also brings firefighters into common overlap with law enforcement. One example of this is a common state law requiring all gunshot wounds to be reported to law enforcement agencies.

Fire fighting has several basic skills: prevention, self preservation, rescue, preservation of property and fire control. Firefighting is further broken down into skills which include size-up, extinguishing, ventilation, and salvage and overhaul. Search and Rescue, which has already been mentioned, is performed early in any fire scenario and many times is in unison with extinguishing and ventilation.
[edit] Prevention
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Prevention attempts to ensure that no place simultaneously has sufficient heat, fuel and air to allow ignition and combustion. Most prevention programs are directed at controlling the energy of activation (heat).
Fire engine of the Paris Fire Brigade, a French army unit.

Fire suppression systems have a proven record for controlling and extinguishing unwanted fires. Many fire officials recommend that every building, including residences, have fire sprinkler systems. Correctly working sprinklers in a residence greatly reduce the risk of death from a fire. With the small rooms typical of a residence, one or two sprinklers can cover most rooms.

In addition, a major duty of fire services is the regular inspection of buildings to ensure they are up to the current building fire codes, which are enforced so that a building can sufficiently resist fire spread, potential hazards are located, and to ensure that occupants can be safely evacuated, commensurate with the risks involved.

Other methods of fire prevention are by directing efforts to reduce known hazardous conditions or by preventing dangerous acts before tragedy strikes. This is normally accomplished in many innovative ways such as conducting presentations, distributing safety brochures, providing news articles, writing public safety announcements (PSA) or establishing meaningful displays in well-visited areas. Ensuring that each household has working smoke alarms, is educated in the proper techniques of fire safety, has an evacuation route and rendezvous point is of top priority in public education for most fire prevention teams in almost all fire department localities.
A firefighters memorial in Columbus, Ohio U.S.
[edit] Self-preservation
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Self-preservation is very critical. The basic technique firefighters use is to know where they are, and to avoid hazards. Current standards in the United States recommend that firefighters work in teams, using a "two-in, two-out" rule whenever in an IDLH (Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health) environment.

Tools are generally carried at all times and are important for not only forcible entry but also for self rescue. A Self Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) delivers air to the firefighter through a full face mask and is worn to protect against smoke inhalation, toxic fumes, and super heated gasses. A special device called a Personal Alert Safety System (PASS) is commonly worn independently or as a part of the SCBA to alert others when a firefighter stops moving for a specified period of time or manually operates the device. The PASS device sounds an alarm that can assist another firefighter (Firefighter Assist and Search Team), in locating the firefighter in distress.
A Dennis Dagger of Merseyside Fire and Rescue Service, England

Firefighters often carry personal self rescue ropes. The ropes are generally 30 feet long and can provide a firefighter (that has enough time to deploy the rope) a partially controlled exit out an elevated window. Lack of a personal rescue rope is cited in the deaths of two New York City Firefighters, Lt. John Bellew and Lt. Curtis Meyran, who died after they jumped from a fourth floor of a burning apartment building in the Bronx. Of the four firefighters who jumped and survived only one of them had a self rescue rope. Since the incident the Fire Department of New York City has issued self rescue ropes to their firefighters.

In the United States, 25% of fatalities to firefighters are caused by vehicle accidents while responding to or returning from an incident. Many firefighters are also injured or killed by vehicles while working at an incident (Paulison 2005). Recently[when?] a new enforcement being made by departments requires, firefighters to wear a bright yellow reflective vest over their turnout coats while working vehicle accident to be more visible to the other drivers on the road.[citation needed] However, a large percentage of firefighters also succumb to heart disease, in the line of duty.[citation needed]
[edit] Rescue
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Firefighter exiting a structure fire.
A firefighter's helmet is built to withstand falling objects and high heat.
Firefighters work to extricate a victim of a vehicle collision with a semi-tractor trailer
Palm Beach County Fire-Rescue Special Operations crews work on the extraction of a buried construction worker.

Rescue operations consist of searching for and removing trapped occupants of hazardous conditions. Animals may also be rescued, if resources and conditions permit. Generally triage and first aid are performed outside, as removal from the hazardous atmosphere is the primary goal in preserving life. Search patterns include movement against room walls (to prevent rescuers from becoming lost or disoriented) and methodical searches of specific areas by designated teams. Unlike a fire control team, a rescue team typically moves faster, but has no hose to follow out to safety through the smoky darkness. A rescue rope may be needed for tethering a team involved in exceptionally dangerous conditions.

Incident commanders also arrange for standby search and rescue teams to assist if firefighters become lost, trapped, or injured. Such teams are commonly, and often interchangeably, known as Rapid Intervention Crews (RIC), or Firefighter Assist and Search Teams (FAST). According to "two-in, two-out", the only time it is permissible for a team of firefighters to enter a burning structure without backup in place outside is when they are operating in what is known as "Rescue Mode". Rescue Mode occurs when firefighters have arrived at the scene, and it is readily apparent that there are occupants trapped inside who need immediate rescue. At such a time, properly equipped firefighters (exercising good judgment tempered by training and experience) may enter the structure and proceed directly to victims in need of rescue, RIC will then be put in place when resources permit.

The Worcester Cold Storage Warehouse fire provides a stark example of disoriented rescuers perishing when their air supply was exhausted during a fruitless primary search and subsequent RIC searches.

Searches for trapped victims are exhaustively detailed, often including searches of cupboards, closets, and under beds. The search is divided into two stages, the primary and secondary. The primary search is conducted quickly and thoroughly, typically beginning in the area closest to the fire as it is subjected to the highest risk of exposure. The secondary search only begins once the fire is under control, and is always (resources and personnel permitting) performed by a different team from that which did the primary search.

Rescue operations may also involve the extrication of victims of motor vehicle crashes (abbreviated MVC). Here firefighters use spreaders, cutters, and hydraulic rams, collectively called hydraulic rescue tools—known better to the public as Jaws of Life—to remove metal from the patient, followed by actually removing the patient, usually on a backboard with collar, and transferring to a waiting ambulance crew in the cold zone. More technical forms of rescue include subsets such as rope rescue, swiftwater rescue, confined space rescue, and trench rescue. These types of rescue are often extremely hazardous and physically demanding. They also require extensive technical training. NFPA regulation 1006 and 1670 state that a "rescuer" must have medical training to perform any technical rescue operation. Accordingly, firefighters involved in rescue operations have some kind of medical training as first responders, emergency medical technicians, paramedics or nurses.
[edit] Fire control
Firefighters trying to save an abandoned convent in Massueville, Quebec, Canada

Fire control (or fire fighting) consists of depriving a fire of fuel (Reducing Agent), oxygen (Oxidizing Agent), heat and/or the chemical chain reaction that are necessary to sustain itself or re-kindle (also known as the four components of The Fire Tetrahedron). Firefighters are equipped with a wide variety of equipment to accomplish this task. Some of their tools include ladder trucks, pumper trucks, tanker trucks, fire hose, and fire extinguishers. Very frequent training and refresher training is required.

Structure fires may be attacked, generally, either by "interior" or "exterior" resources, or both. Interior crews, using the "two-in, two out" rule, may advance hose lines inside the building, find the fire and cool it with water. Exterior crews may direct water into windows or other openings, or against other nearby fuels exposed to the initial fire. A proper command structure will plan and coordinate the various teams and equipment to safely execute each tactic.

   See also Fire suppression for other techniques.

[edit] Structure fires
HAZMAT appliance and firefighters in Canberra, Australia

Buildings that are made of flammable materials such as wood are different from so called "fire-resistant" buildings such as concrete high-rises. Generally, a "fire-resistant" building is designed to limit fire to a small area or floor. Other floors can be safe simply by preventing smoke inhalation and damage. All buildings suspected of being on fire must be evacuated, regardless of fire rating.

While sometimes fires can be limited to small areas of a structure, wider collateral damage due to smoke, water, and burning embers is common. Utility shutoff (such as gas and electricity) is typically an early priority of arriving fire crews. Furthermore, fire prevention can take on a special meaning for property where hazardous materials are being used or stored.

Some fire fighting tactics may appear to be destructive, but often serve specific needs. For example, during "ventilation" firefighters are often forced to open holes in the roof or floors of a structure (called "vertical ventilation") or open windows or walls (called "horizontal ventilation") to remove smoke and heated gases from the interior of the structure. Such ventilation methods are also used to locate victims quicker as visibility increases and to help preserve the life of trapped or unconscious individuals due to the poisonous gases inside of the structure. Vertical ventilation is absolutely vital to firefighter safety in the event of a flashover or backdraft scenario. Releasing the flammable gasses through the roof often eliminates the possibility of a backdraft and by the removal of heat the possibility of a flashover is reduced significantly. Flashovers, due to their intense heat (900–1200° Fahrenheit) and explosive temperaments are almost always fatal to firefighter personnel. Precautionary methods, such as busting a window out, often reveal backdraft situations before the firefighter enters the structure and is met with the circumstance head-on. Firefighter safety is the number one priority.

Whenever possible, movable property is moved into the middle of a room and covered with a heavy cloth tarp (a "salvage cover"). Other steps may be taken to divert or remove fire flow runoff (thus salvaging property by avoiding unnecessary damage), retrieving/protecting valuables found during suppression or overhaul, and boarding windows, roofs and doors against the elements and looters.
[edit] HAZMAT

Firefighters in the United States are frequently the first responders to HAZMAT incidents. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration standard 1910.120 defines four standards of training First responder awareness level, First responder operations level, Hazardous materials technician, and Hazardous materials specialist. EMS-based paramedics are typically trained to the awareness level, whereas career firefighters are often trained to the operations level or better.
[edit] Occupational health and safety
[edit] Cardiovascular disease

Firefighting has long been associated with poor cardiovascular outcomes. In the United States, the most common cause of on-duty fatalities for firefighters is sudden cardiac death. In addition to personal factors that may predispose an individual to coronary artery disease or other cardiovascular diseases, occupational exposures can significantly increase a firefighter's risk. For instance, carbon monoxide, present in nearly all fire environments, and hydrogen cyanide, formed during the combustion of paper, cotton, plastics, and other substances containing carbon and nitrogen, interfere with the transport of oxygen in the body. Hypoxia can then lead to heart injury. In addition, chronic exposure to particulate matter in smoke is associated with atherosclerosis. Noise exposures may contribute to hypertension and possibly ischemic heart disease. Other factors associated with firefighting, such as stress, heat stress, and heavy physical exertion, also increase the risk of cardiovascular events.[2]
[edit] Structural collapses

Another leading cause of death during firefighting is structural collapse of part of a burning building (e.g. a wall, floor, ceiling, roof, or truss system). Structural collapse, which often occurs without warning, may crush or trap on-duty firefighters. To avoid loss of life, all on-duty firefighters should maintain two-way communication with the incident commander and be equipped with a Personal Alert Safety System device (PASS).[3][4]
18‏/10‏/2009 تم النشر بواسطة بدون اسم.
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افتح كتاب الصف الثاني الثانوي ( الفصل الدراسي الاول )
درس رقم ( L1 U2 )
المنهج السعودي
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رجل الإطفاء أو المطافئ. يكافح الحرائق ضمن فريق إطفاء الحرائق التابع للوقاية المدنية، دائما في الخط الأمامي في مواجهة المخاطر: نيران، فيضانات، زلازل أو غيرها من الكوارث الطبيعية. وهو بذلك يعمل دائما في الطوارئ والاستعجال. بمكان الحادث، يوصل خرطوم المياه، ويوجه تدفقها أو غيرها من السوائل الكيمائية والرغوية إلى موضع الحريق أو يستخدم مطفأة الحريق المتنقلة في الأماكن التي لا يصل إليها الخرطوم. يهدم أجزاء من المبنى أو غيرها إذا كان ذلك ضروريا للوصول إلى مكان الحريق ومكافحته، يعمل على إنقاذ الأفراد المحاصرين بالنيران، ويقوم بعملية التنفس الاصطناعي لحالات الاختناق الناتجة عن الحرارة أو الدخان. يؤدي خدمات أخرى خلال حالات الطوارئ مستخدما معدات وأجهزة متخصصة إذا استدعت الضرورة ذلك مثل إجلاء السكان عن مناطق الفيضان أو العواصف وإنقاذ الأفراد والحيوانات من المناطق النائية والوعرة التي يصعب الوصول إليها، يطبق أسس وقواعد السلامة والصحة المهنية.

ينضوي الإطفائيون ضمن المستخدمين شبه العسكريين العاملين في الوقاية المدنية، وهم يعملون ضمن خدمة الإنقاذ ومكافحة الحرائق (رجال المطافئ)، وهو يعمل بالدوام الكامل.

قد يضطر الإطفائي للعمل 24 ساعة أو 48 ساعة ليل نهار دون انقطاع إذا ما استدعت حالة طارئة ذلك، وغالبا ما تكون ظروف العمل صعبة وتتطلب مجهودا جسديا جبارا. يظل الإطفائي متأهبا في كل لحظة لمواجهة أي طارئ أو حادث، بالليل أو النهار.

عندما يصل الإطفائي إلى مكان الحادث، يعمل على منع التسرب إلى المكان وينظم حركة المرور بالجوار في انتظار وصول الشرطة أو العسكر، ويقدم الإسعافات الأولية للضحايا. وفي حالة الحريق، ينتظم رجال الإطفاء بحيث يقوم كل عضو منهم بدور محدد من أجل محاصرة الحريق وإخماده وإنقاذ الأرواح.

الصفات الشخصية المطلوبة

الشجاعة : إنقاذ الآخرين يتطلب من رجل الإطفاء أن يعرض حياته للخطر. فهو يواجه الموت والمعاناة في كل لحظة.

اللياقة البدنية : هذه المهنة تتطلب لياقة بدنية وقوة احتمال عاليتين.

الـدقة والفعالية : عنصران مهمان، فقدرته على رد الفعل السريع الفعال والدقيق تحدد فرص إنقاذ أرواح العديد أشخاص.

  Fireman or fire. Fighting fires in fire-fighting team of the civil protection, always in the front line in the face of risks: fire, floods, earthquakes or other natural disasters. Therefore, it has always worked in emergency and urgency. The location, conducting a fire hose, direct the flow of fluids or other chemical and foam to the position of fire or used mobile fire extinguisher in places not accessible to Khartoum. Destroy parts of the building or the other if necessary to reach the scene of the fire and control, working to save people trapped by fire, and the process of artificial respiration to cases of asphyxia caused by heat or smoke. Lead other services during emergencies using specialized equipment and, if necessary, such as evacuation of people from flooded areas, storm and rescue personnel and animals from the rugged and remote areas where access is difficult, apply the principles and rules of safety and occupational health.

Comprises Alitefaiion users within the semi-military personnel in the civil defense, and they are working within the service of rescue and fire fighting (firefighters), and is working full-time.

Firefighter may be forced to work 24 hours or 48 hours a day and night without interruption if summoned an emergency situation, and often working conditions are difficult and require a monumental effort physically. Firefighter remain vigilant at every moment to face any emergency or accident, day or night.

When a firefighter at the scene, working to prevent leakage to the place and regulates traffic in the nearby awaiting the arrival of the police or the military, and provide first aid to the victims. In the case of fire, firefighters are organized so that each member of their specific role in order to thwart the fire and extinguish it and save lives.

Personal qualities required

 Courage: to save others require that a firefighter putting his life at risk. He faces the death and suffering in every moment.

 Fitness: This profession requires fitness and strength possible replay.

 Accuracy and effectiveness: Two important, because his ability to react quickly and effectively identify opportunities for the exact save the lives of many people.‏
18‏/10‏/2009 تم النشر بواسطة أميرة الجهاد_اليمن (حفيدة عائشة رضي الله عنها).
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ما هو الغاز الغير قابل للاحتراق ويذوب في الماء ويستعمل في عمليات الاطفاء ؟
ما هو الغاز الغير قابل للاحتراق ويذوب في الماء ويستعمل في عمليات الاطفاء ؟
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