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List of cities by time of continuous habitation
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This is a list of present-day cities by the time period over which they have been continuously inhabited.

The age claims listed may be disputed, or indeed obsolete. Differences in opinion can result from different definitions of "city" as well as "continuously inhabited".

Several cities listed here (Damascus, Byblos, Jericho, Varanasi) each popularly claim to be "the oldest city in the world". Caveats to the validity of each claim are discussed in the "Notes" column.
Contents
[hide]

   * 1 Mideast
   * 2 Europe
   * 3 Central and South Asia
   * 4 East and Southeast Asia
   * 5 Africa
   * 6 New World and Oceania
   * 7 References
   * 8 See also

Mideast

Continuous habitation since the Chalcolithic (or Copper Age) is possible (but difficult) to prove archaeologically for several Levantine cities (Jericho, Byblos, Damascus, Sidon and Beirut). Cities became more common outside the Fertile Crescent with the Early Iron Age from about 1100 BC. The foundation of Rome in 753 BC is conventionally taken as one of the dates initiating Classical Antiquity.[citation needed]
Name↓ Historical region↓ Location↓ Continuously inhabited since↓ Notes
Damascus Levant Syria Chalcolithic Damascus is often claimed to be the oldest continuously inhabited city in the world, and evidence of settlement in the wider Barada basin dating back to 9000 BC exists. However within the area of Damascus there is no evidence for large-scale settlement until the second millennium BC.[1][2]
Jericho Levant West Bank Chalcolithic (3000 BC or earlier) Traces of habitation from 9000 BC.[3][4] Fortifications date to 6800 BC (or earlier), making Jericho the earliest known walled city.[5]

Archaeological evidence indicates that the city was destroyed and abandoned several times (sometimes remaining uninhabited for hundreds of years at a time), with later rebuilding and expansion.[6][7]
Byblos Levant Lebanon Chalcolithic (5000 BC or earlier)[8] Settled from the Neolithic (carbon-dating tests have set the age of earliest settlement around 7000[9]), a city since the 3rd millennium BC.[8] Byblos had a reputation as the "oldest city in the world" in Antiquity (according to Philo of Byblos).
Sidon Levant Lebanon 4000 BC [10] There is evidence that Sidon was inhabited from as long ago as 4000 BC, and perhaps, as early as Neolithic times (6000 - 4000 BC).
Medinat Al-Fayoum (as Crocodilopolis or Arsinoe, ancient Egyptian: Shediet) Lower Egypt Faiyum Governorate, Egypt c. 4000 BC[11]
Gaziantep Anatolia Southeastern Anatolia, Turkey c. 3650 BC[dubious – discuss] This is disputed, although most modern scholars place the Classical Antiochia ad Taurum at Gaziantep, some maintain that it was located at Aleppo. Furthermore, that the two cities occupy the same site is far from established fact (see Gaziantep). Assuming this to be the case, the founding date of the present site would be about 1000 BC. (see Gaziantep)
Rayy Iran 3000 BC[12] A settlement at the site goes back to the 3rd millennium BC. Rayy is mentioned in the Avesta (an important text of prayers in Zoroastrianism, as a sacred place, and it is also featured in the book of Tobit.[12]
Beirut Levant Lebanon 3000 BC[13]
Jerusalem Levant Israel/Palestinian territories[14] 2800 BC[15]
Tyre Levant Lebanon 2750 BC[16]
Arbil Mesopotamia Kurdistan Autonomous Region, Iraq 2300 BC or earlier[17]
Kirkuk (as Arrapha) Mesopotamia Kirkuk Governorate, Iraq 3000-2200 BC[18]
Jaffa Levant Israel c. 2000 BC Archaeological evidence shows habitation from 7500 BC.[19]
Aleppo Levant Syria c. 2000 BC[20] Evidence of occupation since about 5000 BC.[21]
Hebron Levant West Bank c. 1500 BC "Hebron is considered one of the oldest cities and has been continuously

inhabited for nearly 3500 years."[22]
Gaza City Levant Gaza Strip c. 1000 BC While evidence of habitation dates back at least 5,000 years, it is said to be continuously inhabited for a little more than 3,000 years.[23][24]
Hamadan (As Ecbatana) Median Empire Iran c. 800 BC [25]
Istanbul/Byzantium Thrace Anatolia Turkey 685 BC Anatolia 667 BC Thrace Neolithic site dated to 6400 BC, over port of Lygos by Thracians c. 1150 BC
Europe
Name↓ Historical region↓ Location↓ Continuously inhabited since↓ Notes
Athens Neolithic, Mycenaean Greece Attica, Greece 4th-5th Millennium BC[26][page needed] Earliest human presence 11th-7th millennium BC[27], recorded history begins in 1400 BC.
Plovdiv Thrace Plovdiv Province, Bulgaria 3000[28] - 4000 BC[29][30] Thracian foundation. Earliest evidence of a settlement dates back to 6000 BC.[31][32]
Chania Crete Crete, Greece c. 1400 BC Minoan foundation as Kydonia
Larnaca Alashiya Cyprus c. 1400 BC Mycenaean, then Phoenician colony
Thebes Mycenaean Greece Boeotia, Greece c. 1400 BC Mycenaean foundation
Argos Mycenaean Greece Greece before 1200 BC
Trikala Mycenaean Greece Thessaly, Greece before 1200 BC founded as Trikke
Chalcis Mycenaean Greece Greece before 1200 BC mentioned by Homer
Lisbon Iron Age Iberia Portugal c. 1200 BC A settlement since the Neolithic. Allis Ubbo, arguably a Phoenician name, became Olissipo(-nis) in Greek and Latin (also Felicitas Julia after Roman conquest in 205 BC).
Cádiz Iron Age Iberia Andalusia, Spain 1100 BC founded as Phoenician Gadir, "Europe's oldest city"[33]
Patras Mycenaean Greece Greece c. 1100 BC founded by Patreus
Mytilene Lesbos North Aegean, Greece 10th century BC
Chios Chios North Aegean, Greece c. 1100 BC
Pula Istria Croatia 10th century BC[dubious – discuss] The city's earliest recorded[by whom?] permanent habitation dates back to the 10th century BC (Ivelja-Dalmatin 200).[unreliable source?][34]
Zadar Liburnia Croatia 9th century BC[dubious – discuss] based on archaeological evidence, according to Suić (1981)[dubious – discuss].[35]
Nin Liburnia Croatia 9th century BC]][dubious – discuss] based on archaeological evidence, according to www.nin.hr.[unreliable source?][1]
Naples Magna Graecia Italy 8th century BC[36] founded as Parthenope.
Yerevan (as Erebuni) Urartu Armenia c. 800 BC[37]
Rome Latium Lazio, Italy 753 BC Continuous habitation since approximately 1000 BC.; pastoral village on the northern part of the Palatine Hill dated to the 9th century BC; see also History of Rome and Founding of Rome.
Messina (as Zancle) Sicily Sicily, Italy 8th century BC
Syracuse Sicily Sicily, Italy 734 BC A colony of the Greek city of Corinth
Reggio Calabria (as Rhegion) Magna Graecia Calabria, Italy 720 BC
Crotone Calabria Magna Graecia, Italy 710 BC
Taranto (as Taras) Magna Graecia Puglia, Italy 706 BC
Corfu, Kerkyra Corfu Ionian Islands, Greece 700 BC
Durrës Illyria Albania 627 BC Founded[38] by settlers from Corcyra & Corinth as Epidamnos
Marseille (as Massilia) Gaul France 600 BC A colony of the Greek city of Phocaea
Varna Thrace Bulgarian Black Sea Coast, Bulgaria 585 BC - 570 BC founded[39] as Odessos by settlers from Miletus
Kavala Macedonia Greece 6th century BC founded as Neapolis
Edessa, Greece Macedonia Greece before the 6th century BC capital of Macedonia up to 6th century BC
Mangalia Dacia Romania 6th century BC founded as Callatis
Constanţa Dacia Romania 6th century BC founded as Tomis
Mantua Po Valley Lombardy, Italy 6th century BC Village settlement since c. 2000 BC; became an Etruscan city in the 6th century BC.
Serres Macedonia Greece 5th century BC first mentioned in the 5th century BC as Siris
Lamia (city) Greece Greece before the 5th century BC first mentioned 424 BC
Veria Macedonia Greece ca. 432 BC first mentioned by Thucydides in 432 BC
Rhodes Rhodes, Aegean Sea Dodecanese, Greece ca. 408 BC
Sofia, Moesia Sofia Valley, Bulgaria 4th century BC
Stara Zagora Thrace Bulgaria 342 BC It was called Beroe in ancient times and was founded by Phillip II of Macedon[40][41][42][43], although a Thracian settlement neolithic inhabitation have been discovered as well.
Thessaloniki Macedonia (ancient kingdom) Greece 315 BC founded as a new city in the same place of the older city Therme.
Berat Macedonia (ancient kingdom) Albania 314 BC Founded[44] by Cassander as Antipatreia
Belgrade Illyria Serbia 279 BC Vinča culture prospered around Belgrade in the 6th millennium BC. Founded as Singidunum.
Niš Illyria Serbia 279 BC Founded as Navissos. Neolithic settlements date to 5000-2000 BC.
Cartagena (as Carthago Nova) Iberia Spain 228 BC Carthaginian colony, founded by Hasdrubal Barca
Barcelona (as Barcino) Iberia Catalonia, Spain 3rd century BC Carthaginian colony, founded by Hamilcar Barca
Sremska Mitrovica Illyria Serbia 1st century BC Founded as Sirmium. Neolithic settlements date to 5000 BC and are with other archeological findings evidence to continuous habitation.
Smederevo Illyria Serbia 1st century BC Founded as Semendria.
Évora Lusitania Portugal 53 BC (roman conquer) Evidence of Celtiberian settlement prior to roman occupation.
Paris Lutetia France 52 BC Archaeological evidence indicates human habitation as early as 4200 BC[45]. During the Gallic Wars, Caesar's armies set fire to Lutetia "a town of the Parisii, situated on an island on the river Seine."[46] While only a garrison at best on the Île de la Cité during some periods after 1st and 2nd century, was renamed Paris in 360 CE[47][48]
Zürich (Lindenhof) Gaul Switzerland ca. 50 BC lakeside settlement traces dating to the Neolithic.
Trier Gallia Belgica Germany 30 BC Oldest city in Germany.
Nijmegen Germania Inferior Netherlands 19 BC Oldest city in the Netherlands.
Chur Raetia Prima Grisons, Switzerland 15 BC habitation since the 4th millennium BC (Pfyn culture).
Solothurn Gaul Switzerland c. 20 AD Evidence of pre-Roman, Celtic settlement; newly founded by the Romans between 14 – 37 AD, called the "oldest city in Gaul besides Trier" in a verse on the city's clock tower.
London Britannia UK 43 AD
Novi Sad Illyria Serbia 1st century AD Founded as Cusum.
Verdun Lotharingia France 4th century seat of the bishop of Verdun from the 4th century, but populated earlier
Kyiv Medieval East Slavic civilization Ukraine 482 CE Founded by Slavic tribe leader Kyi. Some sources suggest Kyiv was founded in 640 BC.
Prague Bohemia Czech Republic c. 6th century The first written record dates back to the 10th century [49].
Ioannina Byzantine Empire Greece founded by emperor Justinian I
Krakow (Wawel Hill) Lesser Poland Poland 7th c.[50] The first written record dates back to the 10th century.
Århus Denmark c. 700 oldest city in Scandinavia.
Heraklion Crete Greece 824 founded by the Saracens
Dublin Ireland Republic of Ireland 841
Reykjavík Iceland Iceland c. 871 [2]
Tønsberg Norway Norway c. 871 oldest city in Norway.
Skara Sweden 988
Lund Denmark Sweden c. 990 [3]
Central and South Asia
Name↓ Historical region↓ Location↓ Continuously inhabited since↓ Notes
Peshawar Gandhara Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan c. 1000 BC Ongoing excavations in the Gor Khuttree region have given proof of the ancient foundations of the city and have established Peshawar as one of the oldest settlements in Central and South Asia
Balkh (as Bactra) Bactria Balkh Province, Afghanistan c. 1,500 BC Balkh is one of the oldest settlements of the region.[51]
Varanasi Iron Age India Uttar Pradesh, India c. 1200-1000 BC[52] Iron Age foundation (Painted Grey Ware culture).
Anuradhapura Rajarata North Central Province, Sri Lanka 10th century BC[citation needed]
Ujjain (As Avanti) Malwa India c. 800 BC [53] Rose to prominence in ca 700 BC as capital of Avanti during India's second wave of urbanization. Walled in ca 600 BC.
Samarqand Sogdiana Uzbekistan 700 BC
Herat Aria Herat Province, Afghanistan ca. 550 BC[citation needed] The city is dominated by the remains of a citadel constructed by Alexander the Great.
Delhi Kuru India ca. 500 BC[54] A city since the "early centuries BC", continuous habitation likely from the 6th century BC, traces of habitation from the 11th century BC. See also History of Delhi.
Madurai Pandyan kingdom Tamilnadu, India 500 BC [55] There are accounts of Megasthenes (c. 350 – 290 BC) a Greek ethnographer in the Hellenistic period, author of the work Indica, having visited Madurai (then, a bustling city and capital of Pandya Kingdom).
Patna Magadha Bihar, India 490 BC[56]
Vaisali Magadha Bihar, India 500 BC[56]
Rajagriha (Rajgir) Magadha Bihar, India 600 BC[57]
East and Southeast Asia
Name↓ Historical region↓ Location↓ Continuously inhabited since↓ Notes
Luoyang (as Zhenxun, Xibo) Xia Dynasty Henan, China ca. 2070 BC
Xi'an (as Haojing, Fenghao, Chang'an, Daxing) Zhou Dynasty Shaanxi, China c. 1100 BC
Beijing (as Ji, Yanjing, Dadu, Zhongdu, Beiping) Yan Hebei, China ca. 1000 BC[citation needed] There were cities in the vicinities of Beijing by the 1st millennium BC, and the capital of the State of Yan (473-221 BC), Ji (薊/蓟), was established in present-day Beijing.
Chengdu Shu Sichuan, China c. 400 BC The 9th Kaiming king of the ancient Shu moved his capital to the city's current location from today's nearby Pixian.
Nanjing (as Yecheng, Jianye, Jiankang, Jinling) Wu Jiangsu, China ca. 495 BC Fu Chai, Lord of the State of Wu, founded a fort named Yecheng (冶城) in today's Nanjing area.
Kaifeng (as Daling, Bianzhou, Dongjing, Bianjing) Wei Henan, China ca. 364 BC The State of Wei founded a city called Daliang (大梁)as its capital in this area.
Guangzhou (as Canton) Qin Dynasty Guangdong, China 214 BC[citation needed]
Hangzhou (as Lin'an) Qin Dynasty Zhejiang, China c. 200 BC The city of Hangzhou was founded about 2,200 years ago during the Qin Dynasty.
Palembang Srivijaya Indonesia c. 600 oldest city in the Malay Archipelago, capital of the Srivijaya empire.
Tondo, Manila Kingdom of Tondo Philippines 900[58] oldest known settlement in the Philippines as documented by the Laguna Copperplate Inscription; when the Spanish, led by Miguel Lopez de Legazpi, arrived, it was still inhabited and led by at least one datu.
Africa
Name↓ Historical region↓ Location↓ Continuously inhabited since↓ Notes
Ife Osun State, Nigeria ca. 500 BC[citation needed]
Ife Osun State, Nigeria c. 8th century[citation needed][dubious – discuss] earliest traces of habitation date to the 4th century BC.[citation needed]
Yeha D'mt Ethiopia ca.700 BC Oldest site of continuous habitation in Sub-Saharan Africa.[59]
Axum Kingdom of Axum Ethiopia ca.400 BC Ancient capital of the Kingdom of Axum
Igodomigodo Kingdom of Benin Nigeria c. 400 BC City of Benin, one of the oldest cities in Nigeria
Djenné Mali ca. 800 oldest known city in sub-Saharan Africa[60]
Mogadishu Somalia c. 900 settled by Arab traders[61]
Cape Town Cape Colony South Africa 1652 Founded by Jan van Riebeeck of the Dutch East India Company
Monrovia Liberia 1822 Settled by freed American slaves through the American Colonization Society
Dar es Salaam Tanzania 1865 Founded by the Sultan of Zanzibar.[62]
New World and Oceania
Further information: List of American cities by year of foundation
Cholula↓ Mexico↓ c. 2nd century BC↓ Pre-Columbian Cholula grew from a small village to a regional center during the 7th century.↓
Acoma Pueblo and Taos Pueblo, New Mexico USA 1075 (ca.) Among the oldest continuously inhabited settlements in the USA (although not "cities")
Oraibi, Arizona USA 1100 (ca.) Among the oldest continuously inhabited settlements in the USA (although not a "city")
Mexico City Mexico 1325 Founded as twin cities Tenōchtitlān (1325) and Tlāltelōlco (1337) by the Mexica. Named changed to Ciudad de México (Mexico City) after the Spanish conquest of the city in 1521. Several other pre-Columbian towns such as Azcapotzalco, Tlatelolco, Xochimilco and Coyoacán have been engulfed by the still growing metropolis and are now part of modern Mexico City. Oldest capital city in the Americas.
Santo Domingo Dominican Republic 1496 Oldest European settlement in the New World
San Juan Puerto Rico (USA) 1508 Oldest continuously inhabited city in a U.S. territory
Nombre de Dios, Colón Panama 1510 Oldest European settlement on the American mainland
Baracoa Cuba 1511 Oldest European settlement in Cuba
São Vicente, São Paulo Brazil 1532 First Portuguese settlement in South America
St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador Canada 1540s Oldest city in Canada, and oldest English-speaking city in North America
St. Augustine, Florida USA 1565 Oldest continuously inhabited European-founded city within the United States
Jamestown, Virginia USA 1607 First permanent English established settlement in the Americas.
Quebec City Canada 1608 Second oldest city in Canada
Albany, New York USA 1614 Followed by Jersey City, New Jersey (Communipaw) in 1617 and New York City (as New Amsterdam) in 1624 or 1625. (Note: While there was an abandonment in 1617 or 1618 of the Albany settlement, it was re-established within a few years; also, the Jersey City settlement was a factorij or trading post in the 1610s and didn't become a "homestead" (bouwerij) until the 1630s. Settlements in New Netherlands sometimes moved around in the early years.)
Plymouth, Massachusetts USA 1620 Fourth oldest continuously inhabited European-founded city in the United States[63]
Saint John Canada 1631 Third oldest city in Canada
Trois-Rivières Canada 1634 Fourth oldest city in Canada
Montreal Canada 1642 Fifth oldest city in Canada
Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan USA 1668 Oldest European-founded city in the Midwestern United States and third oldest American city west of the Appalachian Mountains.
Sydney Australia 1788 Oldest city in Australia
Hobart Australia 1803 Second oldest city in Australia
Kerikeri New Zealand c. 1818 Oldest European settlement in New Zealand
22‏/12‏/2010 تم النشر بواسطة mohabd288.
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